Fifty Shades of Immune Defence
This great paper appeared in PLOS Pathogens recently. I’ll let you read it for yourself, but to summarize:
- Innate and Adaptive Immunity Are No Longer Black and White; There Are Increasing Shades of Grey
- The Immunoglobulin Superfamily (IgSF) Is Neither the Only Nor the Oldest Antigen Receptor System
- Invertebrate Immune Cells Have Complex Receptor Systems, Possibly Affording Adaptive Immunity
- Forms of Immunological Memory May Well Exist in Nonvertebrates, Even in Prokaryotes
- Comparative Immunologists Will Not Be the Sole Beneficiaries of These Discoveries
Fifty Shades of Immune Defense. (2013) PLoS Pathog 9(2): e1003110. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003110
FIVE VALEDICTORIANS -
This is a tribute to a friend and now a colleague. Great great job sir! You’re still Inspiring lots of souls out there.
tama tama tama
(Source: airows, via micams)
Dinosaur-killing space rock ‘was a comet’
Scientists believe that the object that hit the earth 65 million years ago, triggering the extinction of the dinosaurs, was a comet, not an asteroid. Comets are typically smaller, but faster moving than asteroids. This one resulted in the 180-km wide Chicxulub crater in Mexico, and would have triggered the global environmental change that caused the extinction event. Here’s more from BBC News:
The space rock gave rise to a global layer of sediments enriched in the chemical element iridium, in concentrations much higher than naturally occurs; it must have come from outer space.
However, in the first part of their work, the team suggests that frequently quoted iridium values are incorrect. Using a comparison with another extraterrestrial element deposited in the impact - osmium - they were able to deduce that the collision deposited less debris than has previously been supposed.
The recalculated iridium value suggests a smaller body hit the Earth. So for the second part of their work, the researchers took the new figure and attempted to reconcile it with the known physical properties of the Chicxulub impact.
For this smaller space rock to have produced a 180km-wide crater, it must have been travelling relatively quickly. The team found that a long-period comet fitted the bill much better than other possible candidates.
“You’d need an asteroid of about 5km diameter to contribute that much iridium and osmium. But an asteroid that size would not make a 200km-diameter crater,” said Dr Moore.
“So we said: how do we get something that has enough energy to generate that size of crater, but has much less rocky material? That brings us to comets.”
The rounds I had with my consultant this afternoon reminded me of the reason why I entered the Internal Medicine Program in PGH. It was comprehensive and it summarizes what you had learned in med school for 5 years with just a short visit with a patient. I learned alot today and I miss days like these. Rounds like this one stimulates students and residents to think and to study more for their cases.
It also feels great seeing your students performing well during the rounds. Its really good to be surrounded with bright minds and equally hardworking people. Nowhere but in UP.
My straight wards stint will be soon ending and I’m now going to rotate in the Medical ICU. More time to study and more time to improve on my Mechanical Ventilator and Inotrope Skills.
Now I am wondering how my residents feel about me when I was their student.